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A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws đồ sộ which it is subordinate.
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The term municipality may also mean the governing body toàn thân of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed đồ sộ a special-purpose district.
The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring đồ sộ the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenship đồ sộ the inhabitants) while permitting the communities đồ sộ retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).
A municipality can be any political jurisdiction, from a sovereign state such as the Principality of Monaco, đồ sộ a small village such as West Hampton Dunes, Thủ đô New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass:
- only one populated place such as a thành phố, town, or village
- several such places (e.g., early jurisdictions in the U.S. state of New Jersey (1798–1899) as townships governing several villages, municipalities of Mexico, municipalities of Colombia)
- only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a thành phố, such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile.
Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy đồ sộ complete subordination đồ sộ the state. Municipalities may have the right đồ sộ tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may also receive substantial funding from the state. In some European countries, such as Germany, municipalities have the constitutional right đồ sộ supply public services through municipally-owned public utility companies.
Terms in various countries
Terms cognate with "municipality", mostly referring đồ sộ territory or political structure,[clarification needed] are Spanish municipio (Spain) and municipalidad (Chile), Catalan municipi, Portuguese município.
- In Brazil, municipalities are the local governments, established through state legislations. They are the smallest territorial divisions holding administrative and legislative powers in the following decrescent order: Federation/Union > State > Municipality. Colloquially, the local population uses the terms municipality and city interchangeably.
In many countries, terms cognate with "commune" are used, referring đồ sộ the community living in the area and the common interest. These include terms:
- in Romance languages, such as French commune (France, French-speaking areas of Belgium and Switzerland, French-speaking countries of Africa, e.g. Benin), Italian comune, Romanian comună, and Spanish comuna (Chile);
- in Germanic languages such as German Kommune (in political parlance), Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune;
- the more remote cognates Gemeente in Dutch, Gemeng in Luxembourgish and Gemeinde in German (the official term);
- Finnish kunta.
- Ukrainian hromada.
- and Polish gmina.
The same terms "Gemeente" (Dutch) or Gemeinde (German) may be used for church congregations or parishes, for example, in the German and Dutch Protestant churches.
In Greece, the word Δήμος (demos) is used, also meaning 'community'; the word is known in English from the compound democracy (rule of the people).
In some countries, the Spanish term ayuntamiento, referring đồ sộ a municipality's administration building, is extended via synecdoche đồ sộ denote the municipality itself. In Moldova and Romania, both municipalities (municipiu; urban administrative units) and communes (comună; rural units) exist, and a commune may be part of a municipality.
In many countries, comparable entities may exist with various names.
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- In nước Australia, the term local government area (LGA) is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of nước Australia. Incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility."
- In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, usually within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, municipalities, parishes, rural municipalities, towns, townships, villages, and villes among others. The province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower, upper, and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include counties and regional municipalities. Nova Scotia also has regional municipalities, which include cities, counties, districts, or towns as municipal units.
- In India, a municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body toàn thân that administers a thành phố of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions đồ sộ that, as previously municipalities were constituted in urban centers with population over trăng tròn,000, so sánh all the urban bodies which were previously classified as municipality were reclassified as municipality even if their population was under 100,000. Under the Panchayati raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Generally, smaller district cities and bigger towns have a municipality. Municipalities are also a size of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional (74th Amendment) Act,1992.
- In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the Local Government Act 1972 came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, and until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a thành phố or town which is organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, and also for the governing body toàn thân itself. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, and of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, and in Scotland as a council area. A district may be awarded borough or city status, or can retain its district title.
- In Jersey, a municipality refers đồ sộ the honorary officials elected đồ sộ run rẩy each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction.
- In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is usually understood as a thành phố, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and, later on, may be upgraded đồ sộ thành phố status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain, Arima and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago.
- In the United States, "municipality" is usually understood as a thành phố, town, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law context, some U.S. state codes define "municipality" more widely, from the state itself đồ sộ any political subdivisions given jurisdiction over an area that may include multiple populated places and unpopulated places (see also: Local government in the United States#Municipal governments).
- In the People's Republic of Trung Quốc, a direct-administered municipality (直辖市 in pinyin: zhíxiáshì) is a municipality with equal status đồ sộ a province: Beijing Municipality, Chongqing Municipality, Shanghai Municipality, and Tianjin Municipality (see also: Direct-administered municipalities of China).
- In the Republic of Trung Quốc (Taiwan), a special municipality (直轄市 in pinyin: zhíxiáshì) is a municipality with equal status đồ sộ a province: Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, and Taoyuan (see also: Special municipality (Taiwan)).
Municipalities by country
|Country||Term||Example||Subdivision of||Quantity||Notes||Further reading|
Cuiabá, Maceió, Porto Alegre
|a state (estado), which is part of a region (região)||5,570||A municipality usually is divided in the urban part, the thành phố (cidade), and the rural part.||List of municipalities of Brazil|
|Ireland||bardas, contae or comhairle||Baile Átha Cliath||a province (cúige) or a county (contae)||31||A municipality usually has authority of the whole county. In some cases however, authority is reduced đồ sộ a subdivision of the county for highly populated regions, especially in Dublin (Baile Átha Cliath)||Local governments in the Republic of Ireland|
|Italy||comune||Montefiascone||a province (provincia) which is part of a region (regione).||7,982||Solely used for subdivisions of larger comuni, especially in Rome; municipio indicates the thành phố hall; in some case, they are joined in mountain communities (comunità montane)||List of municipalities of Italy|
|India||municipality, or nagar palika, or nagar parishad||Darjeeling MunicipalityEnglish Bazar Municipality||It is an administrative unit that governs a specific urban area, such as a town or thành phố. Municipalities are established under state legislation and operate under the framework of the relevant state municipal acts. Municipalities have their own elected bodies, which typically include a mayor or chairperson and councilors representing different wards or constituencies within the urban area.||Municipal governance in India|
|Philippines||bayan, munisipyo or munisipalidad||Janiuay||a province (lalawigan or probinsya, except for Pateros)||1,488||A municipality is the official name for a town and is divided into barangays. Municipalities with a larger population and income may become a thành phố through a thành phố charter.||Municipalities of the Philippines|
Sintra, Vila Nova de Gaia
|18 districts and 2 autonomous regions (Azores and Madeira)||308||Usually a municipality is named after its largest or historically most important town or thành phố. Municipalities are typically much larger than thở the thành phố or town after which they are named.||List of municipalities of Portugal|
|Puerto Rico||municipio||Arecibo||none||78||municipality consists of an urban area (termed a thành phố or town) plus all of its surrounding barrios comprising the municipality. It has a popularly elected administration and a municipal mayor. The seat of the municipal government is located in such urban area and serves the entire municipal jurisdiction.||Municipalities of Puerto Rico|
Gothenburg Municipality Malmö Municipality Ale Municipality
|County Councils of Sweden (Swedish: landsting) self-governing local authority, covering 21 counties, each comprising one or more of the municipalities.||290||is self-governing according đồ sộ the Swedish constitution and constitutes local government. Before 1971, a municipality could be called a town (stad), a köping or a rural municipality (landskommun); present municipalities which used đồ sộ be towns are still commonly called towns. Sweden is also divided in 2 523 districts (Swedish: distrikt) since 1 January năm 2016.||Municipalities of Sweden|
- In Portuguese language usage, there are two words đồ sộ distinguish the territory and the administrative organ. When referring đồ sộ the territory, the word concelho is used, when referring đồ sộ the organ of State, the word município is used. This differentiation is in use in Portugal and some of its former overseas provinces, but it is no longer in use in Brazil, where município refers đồ sộ the territorial boundaries and prefeitura is its administrative organ.
- Council of European Municipalities and Regions
- Council–manager government
- Creature of statute
- Lists of municipalities
- Mayor–council government
- Municipal corporation
- Cities portal
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- ^ "2009 Nevada Code". Justia.
- ^ "Kansas Statues". Lesterama. Archived from the original on 24 October năm trước.
- ^ The law provides for the possibility of overlapping of the office of President of the mountain community with that of mayor of one of the municipalities of the community: Buonomo, Giampiero (2001). "Compatibile il sindaco-dirigente della locale Comunità montana". Diritto&Giustizia Edizione Online. Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- ^ "National Summary –number of Provinces, Cities, Municipalities and Barangays, by Region – As of 30 June 2021". Philippine Statistics Authority. 30 June 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
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- ^ Ayuda: Divulgación de Resultados de la Comisión Estatal de Elecciones – Municipio. Archived 21 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Comision Estatal de Elecciones. Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2004. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- ^ Autonomous Municipalities Law. (in Spanish) Archived 5 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 24 October 2011.
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